There are some ten species of birds indigenous to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and literally hundreds more are passing migrants. In the winter birds of prey, including falcons, arrive in the Kingdom. Other seasonal visitors include doves, ducks, geese, the houbara, kingfishers, martins, owls, pipits, quail, swallows, vultures of various types and warblers.
Crows, black kites and, above all, sparrows, encouraged by more plentiful sources of water, thrive within the Kingdom.
The Southern Region has the richest bird population of any part of the Kingdom. Bustards, eagles, goshawks, linnets, magpies, partridges, thrushes and woodpeckers are amongst the species to be found there at some time of the year.
Mammalian life is equally rich. Antelopes, bats, baboons, honey badgers, camels, cats, dormice, foxes, gazelles, gerbils, goats, hamsters, hedgehogs, hyenas, jackals, jerboas, leopards, mongooses, porcupines, rats, sheep, shrews, voles and wolves are amongst those mammals still to be found in some part of the Kingdom.
The oryx, an endangered species, was saved by the determined efforts of the Fauna Preservation Society and the world-wide support the Society's efforts engendered. Oryx, captured in Saudi Arabia, were bred in captivity in the United States of America. Although still limited in number, there are now sufficient for some to be returned to the wild.
To this list we must add a wide variety of lizards (some 100 species) and snakes (53 species, including some highly venomous sea-snakes).